Online Clinical and Drug Information Resource Portal for Pharmacists & Doctors
  Home  |  ADRs+SEs  |  Drug Interactions  |  Clinical Pharmacokinetics  |  Renal  |  Drugs in Pregnancy  |
Palliative Care  |  Crushing Tablets  |  Lab Tests  |  Cardiovascular  |  Endocrinology  |  Urology  |  More >>

Interpreting Lab, Medical & Clinical Tests

Welcome to the interpreting lab, medical and clinical tests section of the website for physicians and pharmacists. This section features links to clinical practice resources on lab, medical and clinical tests such as HbA1c, spirometry, TFTs (thyroid function tests), LFTs (liver function tests) and ABGs (arterial blood gases).

Lab Tests Online-UK
A public resource on clinical lab testing from the laboratory professionals who do the testing

Lab Tests Online-UK is written by practising laboratory doctors and scientists to help you understand the many clinical laboratory tests that are used in diagnosis and treatment.

Source: labtestsonline.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Database
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

American Association for Clinical Chemistry Practice Guidelines

Source: aacc.org
Clinical Resource: Guidelines
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Manual

The main purpose of this Manual is to provide useful guidelines for the selection of pathology tests and to facilitate interpretation of results.

The Manual consists of several sections:

Clinical problems
Pathology tests
Testing process
Case scenarios
Test results
Autopsy
Pathology Decision Support Tools
Glossary

Source: rcpamanual.edu.au
Clinical Resource: Manual
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

ClinLab Navigator
Test Interpretations

ClinLabNavigator provides a comprehensive resource for healthcare professionals with more than 700 laboratory test interpretations, test utilization guidelines and transfusion guidelines.

  • The basic physiology underlying each test is described along with an explanation of how the pathology of a disease affects laboratory values
  • Each test includes a detailed interpretation section that facilitates diagnosis
  • Relevant supportive statistics are included for each test
  • Reference ranges are included for quantitative tests, often in a useful table format
Source: clinlabnavigator.com
Clinical Resource: Database
Register to Access Content: Yes - registration is FREE

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

LabCorp: Test Menu

Search For Tests

By Keyword By Condition

Source: labcorp.com
Clinical Resource: Database
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Biochemical Investigations in Laboratory Medicine
J H Barth, G E Butler & P J Hammond,

Complex clinical problems usually require a spectrum of laboratory investigations initially to aid disease diagnosis and subsequently to monitor disease and treatment. This book has been designed to help choose the most appropriate tests for different clinical scenarios. These are approached with algorithms which should be used only as an guide for investigation as patients are individuals who do not take kindly to following rigid flow-charts.

Decision points on these algorithms are based on both clinical observations as well as laboratory tests. Some decisions require complex biochemical tests often requiring administration of inhibitory or stimulatory agents. These are described in protocols along with interpretative advice. Some protocols have absolute values for decision making which are based on assay methods employed by the laboratories at the Leeds Hospitals and can only be used as guidance for users of other laboratories.

Source: pathology.leedsth.nhs.uk
Clinical Resource: Book
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

London Laboratory Services Group
Laboratory Test Information Guide

  • Browse all tests
  • Browse tests by laboratory
  • Search for tests by using full or partial test name
  • View and set your PDF output options
Source: lhsc.on.ca
Clinical Resource: Guide
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

BestBETs
Laboratory

BETs were developed in the Emergency Department of Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK, to provide rapid evidence-based answers to real-life clinical questions, using a systematic approach to reviewing the literature. BETs take into account the shortcomings of much current evidence, allowing physicians to make the best of what there is.

Source: bestbets.org
Clinical Resource: Evidence Based Answers to Clinical Questions
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Clinical Information and Support

Some of the most visited pages on our website relate to clinical information and interpretation of tests. Example of such popular pages are:-

  • Urea and Electrolytes
  • Thyroid Function tests
  • Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
  • Bone biochemistry/Rheumatology
  • Thrombophilia
  • Full Blood Count
  • Interpretation Autoimmune disease
  • Monitoring Inflammation: PV, ESR or CRP
Source: pathology.leedsth.nhs.uk
Clinical Resource: Various
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

The Urbana Atlas of Pathology
University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign

Table of Contents

  • Volume 1 - Overview of General Pathology
  • Volume 2 - Cardiovascular Pathology
  • Volume 3 - Endocrine Pathology
  • Volume 4 - Pulmonary Pathology
  • Volume 5- Renal Pathology
Source: med.illinois.edu
Clinical Resource: Atlas
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Clinical Biochemistry Reference Ranges

Source: ldhpathology.co.uk
Clinical Resource: Table
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Common Haematology Reference Ranges

Source: ldhpathology.co.uk
Clinical Resource: Table
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

UK Screening Portal

There's a wealth of material about screening on this website for health and related professionals, as well as links to the websites of all the individual screening programmes in the UK.

Source: screening.nhs.uk
Clinical Resource: Various
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Frequently Encoutered Interferences in Selected Analytes

The table below, though by no means exhaustive, represents some of the common interferences encountered in tests requested in the department. Drug effects may be biological or analytical. In the former, a real in vivo change in the analyte occurs, not usually directly related to the therapeutic effect of the drug.

Source: pathlabs.rlbuht.nhs.uk
Clinical Resource: Table
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Table for conversions of chemical compounds (such as HDL, LDL, triglyceride, angiotensin, apolipoprotein, C-peptide, glucose and many more) from conventional units to SI units and vice versa

Find below a chemical conversion table containing chemical compounds with factors for conversion from conventional to SI units as well as a calculator for conversions of all listed chemicals and substances.

Source: soc-bdr.org
Clinical Resource: Calculator
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Biochemical tests in pregnancy

Pregnancy is a normal physiological phenomenon with many biochemical changes ranging from alterations in electrolyte concentrations to more complex changes in cortisol and calcium metabolism. The results of biochemical tests during pregnancy may therefore differ from the normal reference ranges so they may be mistakenly interpreted as abnormal.

Source: nps.org.au
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 08/08/16 Link Error: Report It

 

Biochemical tests for abnormalities in pregnancy

Pregnancy induces major physiological, hormonal and biochemical changes to achieve an optimal outcome for the baby and its mother. When the pregnancy deviates from its normal course, there are many biochemical markers which can be used to assess these abnormalities.

Source: nps.org.au
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 08/08/16 Link Error: Report It

 

The interpretation of arterial blood gases

Arterial blood gas analysis is used to measure the pH and the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood. The investigation is relatively easy to perform and yields information that can guide the management of acute and chronic illnesses.

Source: nps.org.au
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 08/08/16 Link Error: Report It

 

Interpretation of Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs)

Interpreting an arterial blood gas (ABG) is a crucial skill for physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other health care personnel. ABG interpretation is especially important in critically ill patients.

The following six-step process helps ensure a complete interpretation of every ABG. In addition, you will find tables that list commonly encountered acid-base disorders.

Source: thoracic.org
Clinical Resource: Discussion
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 11/05/15 Link Error: Report It

 

American College of Gastroenterology Guideline on the Evaluation of Abnormal Liver Chemistries

Source: gi.org
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 12/06/17 Link Error: Report It

 

European Association for the Study of the Liver Clinical Practice Guidelines: Non-Invasive Tests for Evaluation of Liver Disease Severity and Prognosis

Source: easl.eu
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 19/08/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease: A Guide to Commonly Used Liver Tests

This chapter is designed to discuss a useful way of thinking about liver tests. It emphasizes limitations of and alternative explanations for isolated abnormalities of common liver test results.

Source: clevelandclinicmeded.com
Clinical Resource: Medical Reference
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Special Considerations in Interpreting Liver Function Tests

A number of pitfalls can be encountered in the interpretation of common blood liver function tests. These tests can be normal in patients with chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis.

Source: aafp.org
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Liver function tests

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a panel of blood markers used to assess and monitor several diseases. However, they are not all true tests of liver function and abnormalities may not reflect liver disease.

Source: racgp.org.au
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 05/05/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Management of Abnormal LFT in Adult Asymptomatic Patients
Western Sussex Hospitals NHS

These guidelines are aimed at Gastroenterologists and General Practitioners who manage patients with no symptoms, vague symptoms, or symptoms not attributable to liver disease who are found to have abnormal LFTs.

Source: gp.westernsussexhospitals.nhs.uk
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 19/08/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Revised Newcastle, North Tyneside and Northumberland Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Asymptomatic Liver Function Abnormalities

This local guideline is revised from the Newcastle, North Tyneside and Northumberland guidelines based on previous Newcastle West PCT guidance. It relates to adults with only vague or no symptoms or signs of liver disease, found to have abnormal LFTs.

Source: northoftyneapc.nhs.uk
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 22/11/16 Link Error: Report It

 

American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Position Paper on Liver Biopsy

Source: aasld.org
Clinical Resource: Position Paper
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Guidelines on the use of Liver Biopsy in Clinical Practice

These revised guidelines were drawn up for the British Society of Gastroenterology and the British Association for the Study of the Liver by Professor James Neuberger, Dr Allister Grant, Professor Chris Day and Dr Sushma Saxseena. Within the boundaries of current literature we have attempted where possible to make the guidelines "evidence based".

Source: bsg.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Practice Guidelines

Source: asge.org
Clinical Resource: Guidelines
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Biomarkers in Nephrology: Core Curriculum 2013

In this Core Curriculum, we aim to discuss both conventional and novel biomarkers of kidney disease in the settings of acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), nephrotoxin exposure, and glomerulonephritis.

Source: ajkd.org
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 05/05/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Creatinine-False Elevations

A: Interestingly, the only elevated laboratory value was the (SCr). Generally, when renal dysfunction is suspected, other lab values (BUN for example) are also increased. In this situation, it is reasonable to consider that some factor has resulted in a falsely elevated creatinine concentration.

Source: duq.edu
Clinical Resource: Pharmaceutical Information Centre Publication
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

A primary care approach to sodium and potassium imbalance

Interpreting and managing a laboratory result of abnormal sodium or potassium levels is a common scenario in general practice. Electrolyte imbalances are more common in older people and in people with co-morbidities. The immediate cause of the imbalance is usually clinically apparent, e.g. fluid overload or depletion. In many cases medicines are implicated as a contributing cause. Indications for urgent referral to secondary care are detailed, and potential causes of the imbalance are discussed.

Source: bpac.org.nz
Clinical Resource: Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Hyponatraemia

There are three main pathophysiological causes of hyponatraemia. Hypovolaemic hyponatraemia is characterised by clinical and biochemical evidence of dehydration and is best treated by intravenous sodium chloride solution. Hypervolaemic hyponatraemia presents with fluid overload, which usually requires diuretic therapy. Euvolaemic hyponatraemia, of which the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is an example, is traditionally treated with fluid restriction, although the new vasopressin antagonists, the vaptans, show great potential for future therapy.

Source: rcpe.ac.uk
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Disorders of sodium balance

Here, we describe the common causes of disorders of plasma sodium, offer guides to their investigation and management, and highlight areas of recent advance and of uncertainty.

Source: europepmc.org
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 07/04/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia in the Elderly

Management of abnormalities in water homeostasis is frequently challenging. Because age-related changes and chronic diseases are often associated with impairment of water metabolism in elderly patients, it is absolutely essential for clinicians to be aware of the pathophysiology of hyponatremia and hypernatremia in the elderly.

Source: aafp.org
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Management of hyperkalaemia

Hyperkalaemia, an elevated extracellular fluid potassium concentration, is a common electrolyte disorder and is present in 1–10% of hospitalised patients. Elevated serum potassium concentrations are usually asymptomatic but may be associated with electrocardiogram (ECG) changes. Hyperkalaemia occasionally leads to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Prompt recognition of this disorder, patient risk management and administration of appropriate treatment can prevent serious cardiac complications of hyperkalaemia.

Source: rcpe.ac.uk
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Medication-Induced Hypokalemia: A Common Problem

This issue of Elder Care will review the most common hypokalemia-causing drugs. These and other medications are listed in Table 2. In addition to medication, hypokalemia can also be caused by the ingestion of large quantities of caffeine or licorice.

Source: aging.arizona.edu
Clinical Resource: Factsheet
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 26/10/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Society for Endocrinology Emergency Endocrine Guidance - Acute hypercalcaemia

This document aims to provide guidance during the initial phase of assessment and management of acute hypercalcaemia.

Source: endocrinology.org
Clinical Resource: Guidance
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Society for Endocrinology Emergency Endocrine Guidance - Acute hypocalcaemia

This document aims to provide guidance during the initial phase of assessment and management of acute hypocalcaemia (in adult patients).

Source: endocrinology.org
Clinical Resource: Guidance
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Endocrinology Handbook

Endocrine Unit Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust Charing Cross, Hammersmith and St. Mary’s Hospitals

Diagnosis and appropriate treatment in clinical endocrinology rely heavily on the accurate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. This handbook was devised as a means of guiding new junior staff (and refreshing the memories of their seniors!) when confronted by clinical problems and their investigation. This bible is meant to be brief and didactic with the inevitable costs as well as benefits of such an approach.

Source: imperialendo.co.uk
Clinical Resource: Handbook
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 19/08/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Endocrine Testing Protocols

1 Endocrine Testing Protocols: Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis
1.5 Evaluation of adult growth hormone deficiency: current and future perspectives
2 Endocrine testing for the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH)
3b Hypopituitarism
3a Acromegaly
4 Assay of Thyroid Hormones and Related Substances
5 Pancreatic Islet Function Tests
6a Laboratory Assessment of Testicular Function
6 Ovarian Reserve Testing
7 Testing for Endocrine Hypertension

Source: endotext.org
Clinical Resource: Protocols
Register to Access Content: Yes - registration is FREE

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Association of British Clinical Diabetologists position statement on haemoglobin A1c for the diagnosis of diabetes

Source: diabetologists-abcd.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Position Paper
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology Statement on the Use of Hemoglobin A1c for the Diagnosis of Diabetes

Source: aace.com
Clinical Resource: Position Statement
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Reporting and interpreting glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) results/values

When performed for diagnosis/CV risk screening
When performed in those with confirmed diabetes

Source: nzssd.org.nz
Clinical Resource: Tables
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

HbA1c converter

Convert HbA1c % to mmol/mol and vice versa

Source: diabetes.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Converter
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Conversion of Glucose Values from mg/dl to mmol/l

Source: soc-bdr.org
Clinical Resource: Calculator
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

estimated Average Glucose, eAG

ADA is recommending the use of a new term in diabetes management, estimated average glucose, or eAG. Health care providers can now report A1C results to patients using the same units (mg/dl or mmol/l) that patients see routinely in blood glucose measurements.

Source: professional.diabetes.org
Clinical Resource: Calculator
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Guideline on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Non-Insulin Treated Type 2 Diabetes

In October 2008, the International Diabetes Federation Clinical Guidelines Task Force, in conjunction with the SMBG International Working Group, convened a workshop in Amsterdam to address the issue of SMBG utilization in people with type 2 diabetes (T2M) that is not treated with insulin.

Source: idf.org
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 20/08/15 Link Error: Report It

 

The Tayside Diabetes Handbook > The Role of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

An OGTT need only be considered to establish a diagnosis of diabetes if blood glucose values fall into an equivocal range (e.g. FPG >6.0

Source: diabetes-healthnet.ac.uk
Clinical Resource: Handbook
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 30/08/16 Link Error: Report It

 

UK Guidelines for the Use of Thyroid Function Tests

The Use of Thyroid Function Tests Guidelines Development Group was formed in 2002 under the auspices of the Association for Clinical Biochemistry (ACB), the British Thyroid Association (BTA) and the British Thyroid Foundation (BTF).

Source: british-thyroid-association.org
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Adapted Summary of UK Guidelines for the Use of Thyroid Function Tests

Contents

Indications for thyroid function testing
Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism

Source: pathlabs.rlbuht.nhs.uk
Clinical Resource: Summary
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

The Diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

Source: endocrine.org
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Reproductive hormones: The right test, at the right time, for the right patient

Understanding the physiology of reproductive hormones, recognising pathology and knowing what tests to order, when to order them and how to interpret the results can be daunting. Hormone tests provide important information when applied appropriately, but often they are used without a clearly thought out diagnostic pathway, or in response to patient demand, rather than being tailored to the right patient in the right situation. In such situations, hormone tests will, at best, be of no clinical use, and at worst, lead to anxiety and uncertainty. We look at some of the more common applications of hormone tests in the general practice setting.

Source: bpac.org.nz
Clinical Resource: Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Third universal definition of myocardial infarction
European Society of Cardiology Clinical Practice Guidelines

Source: escardio.org
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 08/06/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Cardiac Enzymes and Markers for Myocardial Infarction

Cardiac biomarkers should be measured in all patients who present with chest discomfort consistent with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Elevations of cardiac enzyme levels should be interpreted in the context of clinical and ECG findings.

Source: patient.co.uk
Clinical Resource: Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Cardiac Markers

Cardiac markers are used in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The cardiac troponins, in particular, have become the cardiac markers of choice for patients with ACS. Indeed, cardiac troponin is central to the definition of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in the consensus guidelines from the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

Source: medscape.com
Clinical Resource: Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

The role of troponin testing in Primary Care

Introduction | Other causes of raised troponin level | Troponin has no role in ‘screening’ for CVD | Laboratory versus point-of-care troponin testing | What are troponins? | References

Source: bpac.org.nz
Clinical Resource: Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Electrocardiogram (ECG / EKG) Library

An electrocardiogram (ECG / EKG) is an electrical recording of the heart and is used in the investigation of heart disease. This library is a collection of realistic looking recordings which will help improve your ECG skills. Information about the library and the techniques used to reproduce the recordings is available.

Source: ecglibrary.com
Clinical Resource: Recordings
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

ECG Basics, ECG Rhythms and ECG Rules

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a diagnostic tool that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart in detail. Being able to interpretate these details allows diagnosis of a wide range of heart problems.

Source: ambulancetechnicianstudy.co.uk
Clinical Resource: CE / CPD / Learning
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Monitoring anticoagulant therapy in primary care

This Bulletin considers issues that should be addressed by anticoagulant monitoring services in primary care.

Source: wemerec.org
Clinical Resource: Medicines Resource Centre Bulletin
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

British Society for Haematology Guideline: Measurement of non-Coumarin anticoagulants and their effects on tests of Haemostasis

Source: b-s-h.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 16/11/16 Link Error: Report It

 

Laboratory Monitoring of Warfarin Therapy

Crystalline warfarin sodium (Coumadin, Panwarfin, Sofarin, Coufarin, Athrombin-K) is the most widely used oral anticoagulant in the world. Warfarin interferes with the hepatic synthesis of the vitamin-K dependent coagulation factors by interfering with the vitamin K cycle. Laboratory monitoring of warfarin therapy is mandatory, since the agent has a relatively narrow therapeutic range.

Source: pathology.vcu.edu
Clinical Resource: Educational Resource
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 17/02/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Laboratory Monitoring of Low Molecular Weight Heparins

Routine laboratory monitoring is not routinely required, with the exception of patients with renal insuffciency. However, since LMWHs inhibit factor Xa more than thrombin, assays for anti-factor Xa activity, rather than the aPTT, must be used for monitoring.

Source: pathology.vcu.edu
Clinical Resource: Educational Resource
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 17/02/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Laboratory Monitoring of Unfractionated Heparin

Heparin therapy requires rigorous laboratory monitoring with the activated partial thromboplastim time (aPPT), since its bioavailability is variably affected by binding to plasma and cellular proteins. Unfractionated heparin is gradually being replaced by low molecular weight heparin, which has a longer half-life and more predictable bioavailability.

Source: pathology.vcu.edu
Clinical Resource: Educational Resource
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 17/02/14 Link Error: Report It

 

British Society of Gastroenterology Clinical Guideline for the Management of Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Procedures

Source: bsg.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

A Stepwise Approach to the Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests

Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are useful for diagnosing the cause of unexplained respiratory symptoms and monitoring patients with known respiratory disease.

Source: aafp.org
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 05/05/15 Link Error: Report It

 

The Mantoux Test

Administration, reading and interpretation

Source: webarchive.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Factsheet
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Spirometry: The Measurement and Interpretation of Ventilatory Function in Clinical Practice
Rob Pierce and David P. Johns

This handbook was written as a guide for those involved in the performance and interpretation of spirometry in clinical practice, i.e. medical practitioners and assisting nursing staff, and as an introduction to the topic for scientists and technicians. It is not intended to be an exhaustive review but rather a guide aiming to help improve the knowledge and techniques of those already doing and interpreting spirometry, and to introduce spirometry to those learning how to do it for the first time. The important facts about types of spirometers, how the test is actually performed and interpreted, and some common pitfalls and problems are covered in the main text.

Source: nationalasthma.org.au
Clinical Resource: Handbook
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 15/05/15 Link Error: Report It

 

A Guide to Performing Quality Assured Diagnostic Spirometry

This step by step guide shows how high quality diagnostic spirometry can be delivered in primary care and elsewhere. It provides a clear outline covering operator competency, calibration and cleaning, preparation of the patient, operation of the equipment, interpretation of results and quality assurance.

Source: pcc-cic.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Guide
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

An Approach to Interpreting Spirometry

A great deal of information can be obtained from a spirometry test; however, the results must be correlated carefully with clinical and roentgenographic data for optimal clinical application. This article reviews the indications for use of spirometry, provides a stepwise approach to its interpretation, and indicates when additional tests are warranted.

Source: aafp.org
Clinical Resource: Journal Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Spirometry Guide

A comprehensive guide to the use of spirometry in clinical practice, including an overview of information provided by spirometry, when to perform this test, interpretation of spirogram results, and troubleshooting.

Source: goldcopd.org
Clinical Resource: Guide
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 21/08/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Spirometry in Practice
A Practical Guide to Using Spirometry in Primary Care

Spirometry is fundamental to making a confident diagnosis of COPD, yet research has shown that it has been under-utilised.

Many doctors and nurses have been apprehensive about using spirometry in their day-to-day practice. They regarded it as time-consuming, and they lacked confidence about the interpretation of the results. The first edition of this booklet was produced by the British Thoracic Society (BTS) COPD Consortium to encourage use of spirometry by:

  • providing information on how to perform spirometry
  • explaining the interpretation of spirometry results
  • giving practical examples and case studies
  • explaining the importance of spirometry in the management of COPD
  • using quotes from nurses which reveal their personal experiences of spirometry.

This second edition has been revised to incorporate recommendations on the use of spirometry in the NICE guideline on COPD.

Keep this booklet handy so that you can refer to it at any time when you are considering spirometry and normal lung function. It is meant to be a working reference.

Source: brit-thoracic.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Booklet
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 11/05/15 Link Error: Report It

 

SpirXpert

The SpirXpert website aims at promoting understanding respiratory physiology and pathophysiology. The emphasis is on the measurement and interpretation of spirometric test results.

Source: spirxpert.com
Clinical Resource: Various
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Spirometry

Spirometry is the gold standard for the diagnosis, assessment and monitoring of COPD, and may assist the diagnosis of asthma. It can also contribute to the diagnosis of other causes of dyspnoea.

Source: theipcrg.org
Clinical Resource: Opinion Sheet
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 19/10/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Asthma & Lung Fuction Tests
An information paper for health professionals

This information paper provides an up-to-date summary of lung function testing for asthma, including practical advice on how to perform spirometry accurately and effectively, and when peak flow should be considered.

Source: nationalasthma.org.au
Clinical Resource: Information Paper
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 15/05/15 Link Error: Report It

 

British HIV Association guidelines for the routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-infected individuals 2011

Source: bhiva.org
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

British Association for Sexual Health and HIV / Expert Advisory Group on AIDS statement on HIV window period

Source: bashh.org
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 21/08/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Information for Interpretation of Viral Diagnostic Tests

Source: nebraskamed.com
Clinical Resource: Tables
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Interpretation of Hepatitis B Serologic Test Results

This one page tool describes the four most common tests used in hepatitis B serologic testing and provides guidance to interpret different patterns of test results.

Source: cdc.gov
Clinical Resource: Chart
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Recommendations for Routine Testing and Follow-up for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection

This two-page table summarizes the CDC’s recommendations for testing for chronic hepatitis B including specific populations and a map of endemic countries.

Source: cdc.gov
Clinical Resource: Table
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Interpretation of Results of Tests for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and Further Actions

This one page table outlines interpretation of initial test results to determine whether or not a patient needs additional testing and clinical evaluation.

Source: cdc.gov
Clinical Resource: Table
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Recommended Testing Sequence for Identifying Current Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection

This one page flow chart outlines the serologic testing process beginning with anti HCV testing.

Source: cdc.gov
Clinical Resource: Flowchart
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Hepatititis C
Essential information for professionals and guidance on testing
Department of Health/General Health Protection

The purpose of this document is to inform health professionals about hepatitis C and assist them in offering hepatitis C testing to patients who may have been at risk of infection.

Source: nhs.uk
Clinical Resource: Document
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Hepatitis C: Quick reference guide for primary care

Source: nhs.uk
Clinical Resource: Quick Reference Guide
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Prostate Cancer Screening: Canadian Guidelines 2011
The Canadian Urological Association

Source: cua.org
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 20/08/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Urinary tract infection: diagnosis guide for primary care
Public Health England

Guidance for primary care on diagnosing and understanding culture results for urinary tract infection (UTI)

Source: gov.uk
Clinical Resource: Guide
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 23/02/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Joint Consensus Statement on the Initial Assessment of Haematuria
Prepared on behalf of the Renal Association and British Association of Urological Surgeons

Source: baus.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Consensus Statement
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 20/08/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Complete Blood Count in Primary Care

  • Summary: Complete Blood Count in Primary care
  • Making sense of blood films
  • Drug Induced Agranulocytosis
Source: bpac.org.nz
Clinical Resource: Article
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

British Society for Haematology Guideline on the Laboratory Diagnosis of Functional Iron Deficiency

Source: b-s-h.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 16/11/16 Link Error: Report It

 

British Society for Haematology Guideline on the Investigation and Management of Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Source: b-s-h.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 16/11/16 Link Error: Report It

 

British Society for Haematology Guideline for the Laboratory Investigation of Heritable Disorders of Platelet Function

Source: b-s-h.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 16/11/16 Link Error: Report It

 

British Society for Haematology Guideline
Significant Haemoglobinopathies: Guidelines for Screening and Diagnosis

Source: b-s-h.org.uk
Clinical Resource: Guideline
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 16/11/16 Link Error: Report It

 

Allergy Diagnostic Testing: An Updated Practice Parameter

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI)and the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing the Allergy Diagnostic Testing: An Updated Practice Parameter.

Source: aaaai.org
Clinical Resource: Practice Parameter
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 08/05/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Skin prick testing for the diagnosis of allergic disease

This manual has been prepared by a working party of ASCIA and has been endorsed by the ASCIA Council. It is intended for medical and allied health practitioners and it outlines the application, method and interpretation of allergy skin tests.

Source: allergy.org.au
Clinical Resource: Manual
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Comprehensive Urine Drug Test (UDT)

Source: paineducation.vcu.edu
Clinical Resource: Table
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Immunoassay Urine Drug Test (UDT)

Source: paineducation.vcu.edu
Clinical Resource: Table
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Toxicology Screening: A Review

Toxicology screening is a tool frequently used in the initial evaluation of poisoned patients. It is also commonly used in the community setting by employers and in courtmandated drug testing programs.

Source: utah.edu
Clinical Resource: Poison Control Center Newsletter
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

Interpretation of Urine Drug Test (UDT) based on Opioid Prescribed

Source: paineducation.vcu.edu
Clinical Resource: Table
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

What common substances can cause false positives on urine screens for drugs of abuse?

False-positive reports on urine drug screens by immunoassay are rare (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, small controlled-exposure studies, small case series). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, fluoroquinolones, and Vicks Inhaler are most frequently implicated.

Source: jfponline.com
Clinical Resource: Evidence Based Answer to Clinical Question
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 13/03/14 Link Error: Report It

 

What drugs are likely to interfere with urine drug screens?

Source: uic.edu
Clinical Resource: Frequently Asked Question
Register to Access Content: No

Last Checked: 04/12/15 Link Error: Report It

 

Site Map